The following is an unofficial translation of the article “A Revolução Agrária é o início da emancipação da Nação” from revolutionary Brazilian newspaper A Nova Democracia.
By Jailson De Souza
The recent events in Rondônia, of illegal military siege and preparation for a new massacre of poor peasants in the lands where the Heroic Armed Peasant Resistance of Santa Elina took place 25 years ago (today, Camp Manoel Ribeiro, in Chupinguaia, in the south of the state), bring up an urgent discussion: the Agrarian Revolution.
THE AGRARIAN-PEASANT QUESTION
Buried by the opportunistic electoral left and the praisers of “agricultural capitalism” (agribusiness, productive monoculture land for export and breeder of semi-feudalism), the agrarian-peasant question is central to the transformation of our society and the liberation of the country.
The large concentration of land (1% of the owners own almost half of the arable land) is the first factor, added to the domination of the whole economy by monopolistic groups merged with imperialist domination, which generates all the disgrace for the peasantry. Concentration that only increases, through the expulsion of peasants through agrarian and environmental laws, misery, the action of gangs of gunmen and the very repressive forces of the old state that act directly linked to the latifundio, in those areas of “agrarian conflict”, in vacant lands or where there are large masses of squatters.
In contrast to incorporating these peasants into more advanced (capitalist) labor relations, the latifundia take advantage of the calamitous situation of those to establish the most brutal labor relations, inland, as exhaustion is registered in the so-called “slavery-like jobs” ( semi-slave and semi-feudal forms). Even “agribusiness”, with the exception of slaughterhouses and in the manual planting and cutting of sugarcane, which employ extensive labor force, do not absorb such peasant mass, but in activities complementary to production, such as aftermath after harvest in the cultivations by machinery, in various forms of servitude.
Launched to the cities, the peasant masses also find no jobs there, both in small and medium-sized cities surrounded by the countryside, as well as in the metropolises. They join the ranks of chronic unemployment, forming a huge reserve labor army, pressing for the abundant offer so that the salary becomes even lower and, in the face of the incessant search for jobs, they end up accepting anyone, out of necessity, often in relationships too pre-capitalist. To make matters worse, they often become victims of recruiting their children to urban delinquency and prostitution networks.
At most, landless peasants manage, through state financing, to acquire a piece of land to produce, adding to the mass of millions of families that make up a permanently ruined peasant economy. There, without capital (with extremely concentrated credit for landowners), without technical assistance, without inputs (sold at monopoly prices) and without logistical conditions to drain production – given the degree of poverty in the peasant economy – they become easy prey. the dense latifundium networks and bureaucratic capital, which exploit this production to the fullest. They are forced to sell what they produce at the price stipulated by the middlemen, the only way to have access to the market on a relatively permanent basis. They go into debt and, with little land and low productivity, they lose everything. But not before producing, for a period of time – using their whole family and other acquaintances without paying any wages (at most, giving a piece of land to the “partner”) – the consumer goods in the basic food basket, at an extremely low price ( far below its cost), imposed by the middlemen and bureaucratic-landowning monopolies installed in the countryside. In its place, in some piece of land, another peasant family, equally ruined, will be allocated to continue producing in these conditions, for the benefit of the great capitalists and landowners, keeping the necessary wages in the cities as low as possible. at an extremely low price (far below its cost), imposed by the middlemen and bureaucratic-landowners monopolies installed in the countryside. In its place, in some piece of land, another peasant family, equally ruined, will be allocated to continue producing in these conditions, for the benefit of the great capitalists and landowners, keeping the necessary wages in the cities as low as possible. at an extremely low price (far below its cost), imposed by the middlemen and bureaucratic-landowners monopolies installed in the countryside. In its place, in some piece of land, another peasant family, equally ruined, will be allocated to continue producing in these conditions, for the benefit of the great capitalists and landowners, keeping the necessary wages in the cities as low as possible.
Thrown from the countryside to the cities, under the bureaucratic, semi-colonial and semi-feudal capitalist regime, peasants are, in large numbers, people with no destination.
THE AGRARIAN REVOLUTION PROGRAM
In view of this, the peasant masses find themselves launched into the struggle for land. In this, in spite of all the seduction of “left”, center and right electoral opportunism, drawing a thousand difficulties, they find the Agrarian Revolution, the only way through which they can achieve dignified living conditions and awaken their political awareness of the misfortune in suffering is not the result of bad luck, but a project perfectly executed by the old reactionary state of great bourgeois and landowners, a servant of imperialism, mainly Yankee (United States, USA).
The Agrarian Revolution consists of:
1) Extinction of the latifundium in the areas of development and consolidation of the peasant movement, with an immediate change in the character of land ownership and other means of production. It is understood that the extinction of the latifundium, as an institution and social class, leads to the extinction of semi-feudal relations in the countryside, at least in the areas occupied by the peasant movement.
2) Liberation and development of the productive forces in the field (of man, technique, production instruments, work habits and craft traditions), through the implantation of individual properties of collective structure that comprise small lots, with a consequent increase of agricultural productivity and production, establishing new relations of production, based on a growing cooperation, which develops from the lower to the upper level.
3) Establishment of the political power of the working masses in the areas where the liberation of the productive forces takes place, incorporating the poor peasants, agricultural wage earners and farmers who oppose the landowning, bureaucratic and imperialist policy in force in our country.
4) The nationalization, in the hands of the political power of the revolutionary New State, of the big capitalist companies in the field.
It is clear that a profoundly revolutionary program, which will raise the nation and remove it from centuries of oppression and foreign exploitation and from the great bourgeois and landowners of that country, will inevitably collide with recalcitrant, reactionary and genocidal forces. Forces that are already carrying out their general rehearsal, with the rear of the intelligence service of the genocidal Armed Forces carrying out mapping, spreading their network of secret agents, providing logistical and military support to the local auxiliary forces and indirectly to the band of gunmen from the latifundium. A sinister war, hitherto undeclared, kept under cover, against peasants who are mobilizing for a piece of land and who no longer accept to live under the rotten semi-feudal bureaucratic-landowning.
It doesn’t matter what these gentlemen try. The peasant masses have already found the way to conquer their immediate interests and are awakening to the great truth of our time: there is no way for the latifundium, the great bourgeoisie and imperialism to live with the popular masses of the whole country, without the first enslaving them. the seconds. The Agrarian Revolution will try to end this situation.
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